Conserving water is one of the most important functions of the skin, and how successfully copes with her skin, depends largely on its appearance - the freshness, elasticity.
Water - the basic substance in the human body. It is 60% by weight in men and 50% by weight in women. Our skin 2/3 consists of water, which corresponds to approximately 8 liters. The water, located in the skin, is 25 - 35% of our entire body of water. The main quantity of water in the skin are concentrated in the dermis (80%), slightly less than in the epidermis (60-65%) and very little in its upper layer - stratum - 13% .Normalny water balance and provides a normal skin appearance. If this balance is disturbed, the skin immediately gives to know about it. When hydration skin swells and becomes covered by folds (as in long-term bathing), and the dehydration loses elasticity and shrinks (reminiscent of baked apple).
The water balance of the skin is supported two major systems:
• The internal (osmotic) moisture: water through the walls of blood vessels penetrates into the dermis, and here hyaluronic acid keeps it turning, like a seal, moisture in the gel. The remaining water lying above the skin surface, and evaporates through the stratum corneum of the epidermis.
• The system of external (physiological) moisture, when water gets on the skin surface to air, water procedures, make-up, in the horny layer of the epidermis of its "meet" binding moisture substance - urea, pyrrolidone acid, lactic acid, and others. The molecules grab coveted H2O and hold while they can. This community of water-holding molecules that are concentrated in the epidermis, called the "natural moisturizing factor" - the English designation of NMF (natural moisturizing factor).
Causes of dry skin
The thinning of the stratum corneum caused by external and internal factors, leads to increased evaporation of moisture from the skin:
- Improper care, which leads to leaching of water-holding substances;
- Age; over time, the horny layer becomes thinner;
- Caused by endogenous and exogenous factors, the thinning of the stratum corneum, leading to increased evaporation of moisture;
- The metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids in the body, provoking problems epidermal lipid synthesis, in particular ceramides;
-External causes - sudden changes in temperature, ultraviolet radiation, unfavorable environmental conditions.
Remedy moisture deficit
Unfortunately, beauty can not artificially stimulate maintain water balance inside. But Beauty had learned to keep moisture on the skin surface in two ways:
- Replacement therapy. In the recipe intended for her hygroscopic agents include humectants substance whose goal - to restore the natural moisturizing factor in the stratum corneum.
- Creation of a kind on the skin surface of the shield - the film which will prevent the evaporation of moisture from deeper layers.
Dehydrated skin - this is not necessarily dry skin. Due to lack of moisture can suffer as a normal and oily and combination skin. Therefore, erroneous opinion that such skin do not need to moisturize.
Used in cosmetic moisturizers
- Preparations for replacement therapy are very diverse. Unsurpassed quality differs hyaluronic acid. A solution of hyaluronic acid is widely distributed over the entire surface of the skin to form a light film which actively absorbs moisture from the air. This increases the free water content in the stratum corneum, and creates the effect of "extra moisture", which helps to reduce evaporation of water from the skin surface.
Chitosan is prepared from chitin which crustacean shells, can produce an effect similar to the effect of hyaluronic acid, although it is inferior in activity and strength.
Milk and silk proteins and amino acids are created from the moisture rather viscous gels, and it helps keep moisture in the long term.
Glycerin - a of the oldest moisturizers. Glycerin, by brief contact Skin has a moisturizing effect, but then, on the contrary, aggravates dry skin, pulling moisture out of it.
Propylene glycol - a popular humidifier. However, experts believe it is very toxic.
Sorbitol - one of the most soft moisturizers. It belongs to the group of sugars, and mechanism of action similar to amino acids: forms a very comfortable, non-abrasive skin film which retains moisture for a long time in the horny layer.
- Another way to save moisture - creating a film on the skin. In preparations for forming a surface film includes fats and waxes, mineral oil, glycerine, silicone compounds and other components. The film, which creates saturated fats and mineral oils, usually very dense and has a so-called "occlusion effect" - water "locked" in the skin that can cause tissue swelling. The film formed in unsaturated fats and fatty acids, more flexible and delicate than the saturated fats and mineral oils - it does not cause severe occlusion and suitable for all skin types.
Moisturizers with occlusive effects are mainly used in dermatology for the treatment of diseases accompanied by increased skin dryness and inflammation, after plastic surgery, such as skin resurfacing, as well as to protect the skin with frequent contact with detergents. For normal skin without rough pathologies neokklyuzivnye apply moisturizer. Usually it gels containing hygroscopic molecule (attracting and retaining moisture). Previously, moisturizers are often used glycerine, but in recent time of it almost abandoned.
Along with mechanical protection lipid barrier damaged skin must be protected from free radical peroxidation oxidation. For protection of the cosmetics are introduced in antioxidants - substances neutralizing free radicals and chain terminators oxidation reaction. The most common antioxidant is vitamin E, which easily penetrates into the lipid layers and protects them from oxidation. It is also used vitamin C and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Recently, as antioxidants are often used vegetable polyphenols - bioflavonoids.
Tips for maintaining water balance in the norm
- How can rarely take a bath, wash with soap and water and to clean the skin alcohol-containing means. The water in this case must be warm or cool.
- After the bath soak skin with a towel rather than rubbing.
- After a bath and wash applied to damp skin moisturizer.
- In winter, keep the room minimum comfortable temperature to prevent dryness of the air.
- Adopt a room house plants. Leaves of plants evaporate a lot of water, which allows essentially eliminate the dry winter air in the room.
- Less contact with surfactants, solvents, avoid rubbing the skin on the rough fabric, temporarily use cosmetics containing abrasive particles.
- Temporarily reject of active creams "anti-aging" (especially if the annotation indicated that they penetrate deep into the skin, or something in that spirit) - they can contain substances that destroy the lipid layers.
- Regularly doing physical exercise - it improves circulation throughout the body, particularly the skin.
Honey, raspberry extract, aloe and several other natural products - effective natural moisturizing.