Probably not find a single woman or girl who on the dresser would not be standing at least a couple of jars cherished with creams. Day and night, and certainly even a tube of hand cream. Well, the "advanced" fans "beautiful life" at all can be a dozen different purposes: a moisturizing and lifting effect, anti-wrinkle and whitening, nourishing and purifying, regenerating and anti-aging, and even body creams, bust, skin around the eye, etc.
It's amazing that all this diversity comes from a common ancestor - "koldkrema" his formulation was described as early as the writings of the famous Roman-Greek physician Galen, who lived in the II century AD. Cream Galen consisted of wax, almond oil and rose water. By the way, Galen was not one recipe but many. They are (in a somewhat modified form) are used so far and are called "herbal medicines": this tinctures, extracts, water, oil, soap, etc.
The word "cream" of English origin and means - "cream". For centuries, creams remained practically unchanged, as a main component used lanolin and spermaceti, plus water and plant extracts and tissue. And lanolin and spermaceti - natural substances of animal origin.
Lanolin - wax, which is obtained by treating the wool, and the composition is very close to the natural fat Lubricant human skin. The positive properties of lanolin can be called its rapid absorption, no greasy sticky residue, good softening properties.
Spermaceti - wax-like substance produced during cooling liquid fat which is in a special bag in the head of a sperm whale. If lanolin and is now still used in cosmetics, the spermaceti sperm whale hunting after the ban completely disappeared from the creams.
So, if you will fall on store shelves cream called "Sperm", do not look in its composition spermaceti likely role it plays in the basics of lanolin, and the name - just a tribute to traditions.
Probably, lanolin and will soon disappear forever from the cosmetics, since according to the latest scientific data was in the "black list" of substances that contribute to the sensitization of the organism.
As part of the modern creams, and how to understand all this diversity? How to choose the best?
Of course, to choose the right cosmetic products, it is advisable that you to consult a doctor-cosmetologist. In general, you fit the cosmetic product, which is well tolerated by the skin, it does not cause allergies and gives a pleasant subjective sensations.
Choosing a cream, primarily ask its composition.
Creams differs depending on the type of skin for which they are intended, and what they need to solve the problem. Traditionally in cosmetology as the basis of cosmetic products are two basic types of emulsions, "oil in water" and "water in oil".
Creams oil / water
(mainly wetting) may comprise a cheaper fat components and because of the low fat content does not require the use of expensive emulsifiers to maintain the stability of the colloidal system. Well, if among the components of these creams contain supplements - vitamins, plant extracts or other. Which have a healing and tonic effect.
• The composition of moisturizing creams includes special agents, humectants. For example, such as
- Hygroscopic substance, capture and hold water molecules on the surface of the skin. As moisturizing ingredients manufacturers are trying to use the maximum hygroscopic our skin and related substances. This urea (carbamide), hyaluronic acid, chitosan, D-panthenol, seaweed. A solution of hyaluronic acid is widely distributed over the entire surface of the skin to form a light film which actively absorbs moisture from the air. This increases the free water content in the stratum corneum.
• Water retention capacity
close to similar properties of hyaluronic acid.
- Traditionally used to treat dry skin, as it promotes the binding of water molecules to the protein.
• The important moisturizing ingredients -
(vitamin B5) in the skin which is transformed into pantothenic acid. Deeply penetrating into the lower layers of the epidermis, D-panthenol binds water, ensuring long-lasting moisturizing effect.
• Good moisturizers are also
(palm, almond, soybean) and
That fully reduced hydrolipid film preventing loss of moisture into the environment. But the presence in creams mineral oil is not desirable, although due to its cheapness, it is used widely. When applied to the skin it does not allow it to breathe, since water forms a thin film of air tight and, moreover, is a strong allergizatorom.
• To care for mature and aging skin are excellent cosmetics having in the various
. Proteins are able to retain moisture in the skin tissues.
Creams of the water / oil
have a higher fat content, do not dry in the air and from the cosmetic point of view is much more efficient, albeit more slowly absorbed into the skin. These creams contain no more than 25 - 30% of water and volatile substances, respectively, up to 70% fat, and other active components. During manufacture to stabilize the emulsions requires the use of a sufficiently high quality fats and purification, as well as the use of expensive emulsifiers.
Popular component of modern creams are also fruit acids, liposomes and nanospheres, elastin and collagen.
Liposomes and nanospheres
It is a kind of a vehicle for vitamins, amino acids and other nutrients. They penetrate through the stratum corneum and allow the water-soluble substance to reach the deep layer of the living skin. Dimensions nanospheres smaller than the size of the liposomes and hence their transport capacity are considered higher.
Creams based on the emulsion
For the latest achievements of cosmetology may include the creation of a new emulsion cream base, the structure of which is composed of lipids on the properties and composition of human skin identical lipids -
lipids - fat-like substances, primarily derivatives of higher fatty acids, alcohols or aldehydes. Divided into simple (waxes, triglycerides) and esters (phospholipids, glycolipids), are part of cells and tissues, including skin.
If ordinary emulsion - this oil droplets are surrounded by water (or solvent), then no lamellar emulsion droplets, as a continuous lipid bilayer, which is located between an aqueous layer. Such emulsions do not affect the lipid layer of the skin, organically incorporated therein, heal damage and restore its integrity. Beauticians claim that the use of such an emulsion is no longer necessary in nanospheres and liposomes. When applied to the skin for a long time, the lamellar emulsion remains on the surface, forming a protective film, which at the same time serves as a repository from which the active ingredients are gradually coming into the skin.
Creams based lamellar emulsions are a highlight brands KOKO, the German of Dr. Spiller, Switzerland Pentapharm (series «Woman's Bliss»), the company VIVASAN.
With the establishment of modern skin care products they continue to add and proven ingredients: honey, royal jelly royal jelly, pollen, vitamins, natural vegetable juices, tonics, animal and plant extracts.
As the fat component are widely used olive, almond, castor, coconut oil, and oil of peach and apricot pits.
When choosing a cream you should pay attention to the packaging. A sign of good quality can serve as vacuum packaging and dispensed. After all, while avoiding hand contact with the entire mass of cream, and therefore in such creams makers put less preservatives, the main purpose of which is to suppress bacterial growth and resist oxidation cream after each contact with the air and your hand. The fewer preservatives in the cream - the more space it occupied in nutrients, the better for the skin.
It makes sense, buying a cream, trust the big manufacturers who have the means to maintain their own laboratories and the use of modern and often expensive technologies.
Still, the main thing to consider when buying a cream - the individual characteristics of each organism. After all, even the most expensive cream, the most famous brand can not come, so better take a sampler (if possible) liked the cream, and only then, having listened to the sensations of the skin, make the final choice.